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To determine if a plant is sufficiently cold-hardy, the USDA created numbered zones indicating winter low temperatures; the lower the zone number the colder the winter.
Not only are potatoes fun to grow, but they can actually be unexpected show-offs in your garden. They flower in a range of colors and often carry a sweet scent.
Potatoes are often planted early in the season for a summer crop, or later in the season for a fall harvest.
Many vegetable farms will try their hand at producing two crops during the growing season.
A safer approach is to focus on one harvest and wait until the soil is nice and warm before planting. This makes for happier, stress-free plants that produce tastier potatoes.
You can, however, shop for varieties that are bred to perform best at cooler temps, if that timing works better with your garden schedule.
Potatoes should only be planted when the soil is reliably above 50 degrees F.
"While it's important to consider what's happening under the ground when planting potatoes, it's also good to think about what's going on above the ground. When plants grow closer together (say 8”- 10” apart) the tops will quickly join forces to shield the ground in-between them and may help to save time when it comes to weeding. Here's a trick the local first grade class uses on planting day to keep their spacing at 8” center-to-center (see photo below)."
Planting potatoes is a decidedly unusual process. You're going to bury them in a shallow trench, wait for them to grow, bury them some more, wait for them to grow and then bury them again!
While it's really important for your growing plants to access good soil at root-level in order to grab the nutrients they need, the actual potatoes that you'll harvest are produced off of the upward-growing stems.
For this reason, you'll need to keep adding soil to protect the light-sensitive tubers from the sun. You're literally burying them to keep them away from sunlight, which can cause potatoes to release solanine, a substance that's toxic to humans. For this reason, you should be ultra-aware of re-hilling any dirt that gets washed away by heavy rains.
While more dirt will also give potatoes extra room to multiply, there is a limit to how much each variety will yield.
In other words, you'll harvest the same amount of spuds grown in 3 stacked tires as you will in 6 stacked tires.
To recreate the hilling process in a container, place several inches of soil in a grow bag, short garbage can, laundry basket or stacked tires. Plant your seed potato, eyes-up and cover with soil. Keep adding more soil (or straw) as plants grow, taking care not to completely cover the leaves.
Potatoes, like most edibles, can be easy prey to garden pests and disease. To help them naturally fend off attacks, a good strategy is to eliminate as much stress as possible. You can do this by:
While all of this can help immensely, there is one trick that gardeners rely on to keep potato plants nice and healthy; Foliar Feeding.
Foliar feeding is simply the practice of spraying liquid plant food on both sides of your plant leaves.
The easiest way to accomplish this, is to fill a spray bottle with properly diluted plant food. A great choice for potatoes is a sea mineral blend, made up of both fish and seaweed fertilizers, such as Neptune's Harvest.
You'll want to apply the spray:
You'll be the spraying the equivalent of a well-balanced nutrition shake. If you have access to a pressurized sprayer, that will make the job even easier. However, you'll need to be sure that no harmful chemicals previously occupied the sprayer.
You'll know that your potatoes are ready to harvest after the plants die off. Sadly, pre-harvest time is not always a very pretty occasion in the garden, but it is a sign that your yummy potatoes are ready to be pulled!
Ideally, your soil is nice and loose, making harvesting an easy chore. You may even be able to use your hands to dig around and find loose tubers. Admittedly, this works well when the soil is dry, but if you've had lots of rain forget it - you'll need some helpful tools.
Pulling the whole plant up is the first step, but you'll also need to scavenge around to find any extra spuds. The best tool to use is a long-handled, pronged fork, like a pitch fork. Approach your hill from the side, wiggle the fork underneath the soil and lift upwards, sifting the potatoes up through the loose dirt.
Potatoes should not be stored in the refrigerator. While the fridge is dark, the ultra-low temperature and humidity force a potato's starch to turn to sugar, causing both discoloration and an unpleasant taste when cooked.
While all potatoes need to be kept away from sunlight, the short term keepers usually get eaten before the situation becomes dire. Because they don't hold as long, you can count them as exceptions to the 'no refrigeration' rule.
Spuds that need to be stored throughout the cold season will need to be kept dark, cool, and dry. A basement, root cellar, or the coldest room of an old farmhouse will usually do the trick. If you don't have any of these options available, you'll have to improvise - try dresser drawers, locations against a north wall in your house, or even a drink cooler.
To keep your potatoes firm and sprout-free, store them with a few apples.
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