Germination: To start Milkweed seed we recommend starting inside, but before this happens Milkweed seeds need to go through a cold stratification period. Cold stratification is very important for the germination and growth of Milkweed. It helps break the seeds natural dormancy cycle. To do this, we recommend placing Milkweed seed in a damp paper towel or damp sand in a zip lock bag and place in your fridge for 3 – 6 weeks (30 days). Place in an area of the fridge, where it won’t get damaged. We taped ours to the bottom of a refrigerator shelf.
Planting In Spring: Once the 30 days are complete, it’s time to plant the cold stratified Milkweed (asclepias) seeds. We recommend planting in 2-4” peat pots. Fill peat pots ¾ of the way with seed starting potting soil and gently add water. Water should be able to drain through the peat pots. Once the soil is damp, place 1-2 cold stratified seeds into each pot. To finish, place 1/4 inch of soil on top of the seed.
Planting In Fall: If you're planting Milkweed seed in the fall, let nature do the cold stratification for you! There is no need to place your seeds in the refrigerator before planting, you can plant seeds directly into the soil after there have been a few frosts in your area. This allows for the seeds to remain dormant for the winter and come up in the early spring. Clear away any existing growth and using your index finger to measure, create 1.5" holes for each Milkweed seed. We recommend spacing seeds about 4-6” apart. Place a seed in each hole and cover. Water thoroughly.
Watering: Gently water the planted seed to give additional hydration. The best way to water is from the bottom up. Use a flat pan under the peat pots and add a half inch of water to the bottom of the tray. Don’t over water as it can cause fungus. Water every day or every other day as needed, the best way to test the soil dampness is to touch it. If the soil seems dry then add water; if it’s wet, wait for the soil to dry out to water.
Light Requirements: For the next few weeks, make sure the Milkweed is either in a sunny window, in a green house or under a grow light. Milkweed needs lots of sun and warmth to grow. If you’re using a grow light, make sure to lower the bulb closer to the pots or your seedlings may become leggy, as they stretch to the light. In our experiment, this happened to us. Ideally a sturdier stem is better. Cold stratified seeds should germinate and sprout within 10-15 days once planted. In total Milkweed from the day they are cold stratified to growth can take 40 plus days, so be patient!
Other planting options: Place dry seed (not stratified) in seed starting soil and plant in peat pots under a grow light or in a greenhouse to germinate seeds. The success rate for this is low and more difficult to accomplish. If you choose to use this option it can take months for the seeds to germinate.
If you are planting seed outside, we suggest seeding in late fall, and let the Milkweed seed lay on the ground through winter. Milkweed seed will have a long winter of dormancy, so once the sun comes out and the ground warms in the spring, the seeds will germinate on their own.
Where to Plant: Milkweed does well in open areas with full sunlight exposure areas like fields, parks, cultivated gardens, roadsides, highway medians, and road sides. We suggest transplanting Milkweed when the plant is no larger than 3 inches tall. In most cases in transplanting, the Milkweed plant will go though some shock and could lose all its leaves. This happens, don’t panic. The plant is trying to establish its roots and will eventually grow leaves again. This is the main reason we suggest planting seeds in peat pots, because Milkweed roots are very sensitive. Peat Pots breakdown over time in the ground, which allows the milkweed roots to grows without being disrupted. We found this to be the best way to transplant. If you decide to plant in plastic containers, but make sure it’s deep enough for roots to grow. If you receive a plant already grown in plastic, be careful to take out the plant and not disturb the roots.
When to plant: Soil moisture and temperature are very important when growing Milkweed. The best time to plant Milkweed is in early spring after the danger of frost has passed. If you plant seeds late in the spring, the seeds may not grow due to Common Milkweed Field Grown germination time and temperature. Common Milkweed seed doesn’t germinate over 85 degrees.
Caring For Milkweed (Asclepias) Plants
Once your seedling is planted, water it for a few days to get it established, but after that, the plant doesn’t need a lot of supplemental water. Only water if you have an unusual dry spell. Peat pots are nice to use, but you need to be sure there is no top edge above the soil line after transplanting. In dry climates, this will wick away valuable soil moisture. A small 2 1/2″ diameter x 3 in. deep pot is ideal. Asclepias are somewhat finicky native plants. So minimizing the time growing in a pot and transplanting them as young plants is the best approach.
Butterfly Weed is the iconic, bright orange beauty that's a staple in every butterfly garden. This showy native wildflower is easy to grow, cold hardy, and does well in poor, dry soils. Long-lasting clusters of small, flat-topped flowers are crowned with a yellow, sun-kissed "corona" and bloom from June through August. Butterfly Weed is an important nectar source for Monarch butterflies and its leaves provide essential food for developing Monarch caterpillars - but expect to see a variety of pollinators making use of this plant. (Asclepias tuberosa)
Common Milkweed is the most-well known of the milkweeds – and an important food source and host plant for Monarch butterflies. This reliably cold-hardy native plant is as beautiful as it is tough. Clusters of tightly-closed lavender buds open to reveal sweetly-fragrant pink blossoms, attracting a menagerie of local pollinators to the garden. Long-lasting plants produce spectacular interest at every stage of growth. (Asclepias syriaca)
'Hello Yellow' Butterfly Weed was developed from the native Butterfly Weed and has golden clusters of flowers. Typical of Butterfly Weed, 'Hello Yellow' has narrow green leaves that serve as an important food source for Monarch caterpillars. Many pollinators will be attracted to the flowers as they bloom from July through August. Drought tolerant and easy to grow in your sunny butterfly garden. (Asclepias tuberosa)
'Soulmate' Swamp Milkweed is an essential North American native that provides vital food for developing Monarch butterflies. Cherry pink flowers with white centers emanate a sweet vanilla fragrance that calls in countless other pollinators. Beyond its beautiful color and sweet scent, this compact milkweed tolerates moist soils and is a great choice for small-space gardens. Deer resistant. (Asclepias incarnata)
'Ice Ballet' Swamp Milkweed is a staple of the butterfly garden, providing essential food, nectar and shelter to Monarchs at every life stage. Clouds of fragrant, bright-white blooms also attract and support a crowd of other pollinators. While many Swamp Milkweeds make their homes in wetlands, 'Ice Ballet' thrives in drier soils. (Asclepias incarnata)
'Silky Deep Red' Tropical Milkweed produces eye-catching, red-orange flowers with yellow centers. A valuable source of nutrition for Monarch butterflies, this lush beauty carries an air of exotic mystery when planted as an annual in cooler zones. Young foliage has reddish tones adding to the variety’s distinctive beauty. Flowers from late spring to late fall. (Asclepias curassavica)
Showy Milkweed (Asclepias) lives up to its name, producing an explosion of star-shaped flowers in rounded three-inch clusters from late spring into summer. Each bicolor bloom stands like a crown with pale, tapering horns surrounded by darker pink to purple sepals. An important nectar resource for adult monarchs, other butterflies, hummingbirds, native bees, and honey bees. (Asclepias speciosa)
Whorled Milkweed earns it's name from it's skinny, "whorled leaves". Small clusters of white flowers bloom a little later in the season providing color in your garden when most flowers have disappeared. Prepare to entertain many types of pollinators such as butterflies, and bees with this Asclepias. Monarchs will lay their eggs and the larvae (caterpillars) will enjoy a late season feast. When planting this perennial you can be proud to be supporting the Monarch population. (Asclepias verticillata)
Prairie Milkweed (Asclepias) is a hummingbird favorite and ideal pollinator plant, attracting a wide variety of bees and butterflies to the garden. Easy to grow and endlessly rewarding, prairie milkweed blooms throughout the summer, producing clusters of fragrant, pink flowers. Flowers give way to smooth seed pods that are prized for dried flower arrangements. (Asclepias sullivanti)
'Cinderella' Swamp Milkweed's vanilla-scented flowers are a treat for the senses. Deep pink petals with white centers bloom in 2” wide clusters. Compact in form, 'Cinderella' makes an excellent choice for small, sunny gardens and performs well in low spots and moist areas. Like all swamp milkweeds, 'Cinderella' is a vital host plant for Monarchs, providing essential food and habitat for both the growing caterpillars and adult butterflies. (Asclepias incarnata)