Plant Life Cycles 101: What's The Difference Between Annuals, Perennials, & Biennials?
Understanding the life cycle of your wildflowers is an important step toward growing a meadow successfully! Annual, perennial, and biennial wildflowers have different timelines for growth and flowering, each contributing to the vitality of your local ecosystem. We believe that planting a wildflower meadow (aka Meadowscaping) is more than just sowing seeds. It is the process of envisioning, cultivating, and fostering a naturalistic planting, anywhere. Inspired by nature, meadows transform our lives, yards, and the world for the better.
Read on to learn about each type of wildflower life cycle, and how they can work together to create a thriving garden or meadow.
Annual and Perennial Life Cycles
- Annual wildflowers have a one-year life cycle, and bloom just weeks after planting to provide bright color in the first season.
- After planting, you’ll see annual seedlings in 2-3 weeks and blooms in 2-3 months.
- Annual wildflowers are a great choice for cut flowers, too, since their flowers are long-lived. Cutting often encourages more blooms. Planting individual annual wildflowers each year also gives you the freedom to experiment with new flower varieties each year.
- They grow quickly, and die at the end of their first year.
- Annuals don’t reliably reseed, but they can under certain conditions.
- Perennials return year after year, blooming in the second season and for many years to come.
- They grow more slowly, and in the first season focus the most energy on establishing strong roots, so they typically don't bloom until their second year.
- Each year, they die back over winter, and return from the same roots, forming larger plants and more colorful flowers each year.
- Some perennials are longer-lived than others.
- Perennials planted in spring or summer will typically only grow leaves before winter. These plants are establishing root growth during their entire first growing season - after all, these root systems are going to have to survive through the winter, unlike annuals!
- For example, a daisy will grow only 2-to-3-inch leaves near the ground in its first year; in the second year, it bounds out of the ground with big glossy leaves and beautiful flowers!
- Biennials are much less common, but still important!
- These plants have a two-year life cycle, growing foliage and roots in the first season, and blooming only in the second season.
- Some biennials may reseed and return in your garden or meadow, under the right conditions.
Blooming Time For Established Plants
What most gardeners are looking for in their wildflower meadow: color that lasts as long as possible!
- The average annual flower blooms for 2 to 3 months or longer, typically until frost, in the first growing season.
- The average perennial flower plant blooms for 2 to 3 weeks, sometimes longer, typically starting in season 2 and coming back for years after.
- Like annuals, biennials bloom for 2-3 months or until frost, but only in their second season.
When comparing individual plants, in the course of one season, annual wildflowers add longer-lasting color than perfectly grown, mature perennial wildflowers. Perennials mature into larger groupings of flowers each year, however, they are typically in bloom for less time than annuals.
How Annuals, Perennials & Biennials Work Together
When you plant a wildflower seed mix that contains annual, perennial, and biennial wildflower species, like many of our mixes from American Meadows, here is what you can expect from the life cycle of your meadow.
- Annual wildflowers deliver bold and colorful blooms the first year.
- Perennials typically just grow foliage and establish a root system.
- Annuals are there for more than color! Since the Perennials in the mix make small growth in the first season, annual plants fill in your meadow in the first season, warding off weeds during the first year. (After all, anywhere you leave open soil, nature will quickly plant a weed.)
- Then during your second spring, the annual wildflowers that filled the spaces are most likely gone. (You may see some annuals reseed in your meadow and bloom in the second or subsequent seasons.)
- Perennials will return from their established root system. Some will be ready to bloom, but others may not be fully mature and blooming at full potential. This can sometimes be known as the "Sophomore Slump" in a meadow. That's where biennials come in for support - they'll also return from their established root systems and fill in your meadow with color in the second season.
- You can also top seed with some annuals in the second and successive years to add a pop of color to the bare spots of your meadow. Just rough up the soil and lightly sow (don’t overseed!) with annuals, and compress the soil like you did the year prior. Your annuals will fill in the spots where the perennials haven’t yet matured.
Year 3 & Beyond...
- By year 3, the perennials will be taking over and reaching their full potential, offering shifting colors and abundant blooms all season!
- Some annuals and biennials may have reseeded, but most have probably passed.
- Over time, if you want to layer in additional color, you always have the option to plant new annual wildflower seeds into your established perennial meadow or garden.
Finding The Perfect Mix
That's where we can help! American Meadows has become famous for our wildflower seed mixes. With more than 40 years of experience, we carefully craft our wildflower seed mixes to make it easy for you to grow a wildflower meadow that offers season-long color, year after year.
There are many factors to consider when creating or choosing, a wildflower seed mix. A fine wildflower seed mix is artfully blended to bloom over the entire growing season, from spring to fall. Even better, since no one is cutting back dying flowers, a carefully crafted mix will include various species that bloom roughly from shortest flowers to tallest; that way, new, fresh, taller flowers will cover the fading shorter flowers as the meadow evolves through the year. Furthermore, most gardeners are looking for a wildflower meadow that can be planted once and offer colorful flowers for years to come!
The majority of our wildflower seed mixes include a balance of annual, perennial, and biennial wildflower varieties to take advantage of the benefits of each type of plant.
Some gardeners prefer to plant Annual wildflowers each season. Planting an Annual wildflower seed mix ensures a meadow bursting with colorful fresh flowers all season long. Annual wildflowers are a great choice for cut flowers, too, since their flowers are long-lived. Cutting often encourages more blooms. Planting individual annual wildflowers each year also gives you the freedom to experiment with new flower varieties each year. Learn More: Creating Temporary Gardens With Annual Wildflowers
Annual Wildflower Seeds
Remember: Annual wildflowers have a one-year life cycle, and bloom just weeks after planting to provide bright color in the first season.
Dwarf Red Plains Coreopsis is a versatile native wildflower that attracts bees and butterflies. Clusters of perky red flowers bloom continually from spring through summer, held on de...Learn MoreDwarf Coreopsis Seeds Red Plains Dwarf Coreopsis Seeds Red Plains Coreopsis tinctoria Dwarf Red PlainsAs low as $15.95 Sale $15.15Per 1/4 Pound
Add some star power to your garden or meadow with Bright Star Orange Sunflowers. Pointed petals surround soft ochre-brown centers, for an attractive and elegant flower that looks bea...Learn MoreSunflower Seeds Bright Star Orange Sunflower Seeds Bright Star Orange Helianthus annuus Bright Star OrangeAs low as $19.95 Sale $18.95Per 1/4 Pound
Giant Teddy Bear Sunflowers are irresistibly fun to grow. Fully double, fuzzy blooms are up to 8„ wide, adding touchable texture to bouquets and gardens. Their towering height,...Learn MoreSunflower Seeds Giant Teddy Bear Sunflower Seeds Giant Teddy Bear Helianthus annuus Giant Teddy BearAs low as $12.95 Sale $12.30Per 1/4 Pound
For a deep red flower that adds high drama to gardens and bouquets, plant Rouge Royale Sunflowers. This branching variety has petite 3 to 6„ wide blooms with deep burgundy cent...Learn MoreSunflower Seeds Rouge Royale Sunflower Seeds Rouge Royale Helianthus annuus Rouge RoyaleAs low as $19.95 Sale $18.95Per 1/4 Pound
A mix of yellow, red, lime, purple, orange, and magenta zinnias for a bright and festive flower display! Enjoy these colorful flowers blooming right through frost in flowerpots, gard...Learn MoreConfetti Zinnia Seed Mix Confetti Zinnia Mix Zinnia elegans Confetti MixAs low as $12.95 Sale $12.30Per 1/4 Pound
Our Peachy Keen Zinnia Seed Mix will fill your garden with warm sun-kissed hues. Easy-to-grow Zinnias in yellow, coral, pink, and orange will bloom all summer, drawing pollinators an...Learn MorePeachy Keen Zinnia Seed Mix Peachy Keen Zinnia Mix Zinnia elegans Peachy Keen MixAs low as $12.95 Sale $12.30Per 1/4 Pound
Our Pink Lemonade Zinnia Seed Mix blooms all summer, offering a delicious nectar source for pollinators and hummingbirds. Easy-to-grow Zinnias in cherry red, pink, and lemon-lime add...Learn MorePink Lemonade Zinnia Seed Mix Pink Lemonade Zinnia Mix Zinnia elegans Pink Lemonade MixAs low as $12.95 Sale $12.30Per 1/4 Pound
Black-cherry petals surrounding a deep brown center make Chocolate Cherry a uniquely striking Sunflower. Blooms measuring up to 5” across glow red in the sunlight, and add rich...Learn MoreSunflower Seeds Chocolate Cherry Chocolate Cherry Sunflower Helianthus annuus Chocolate CherryAs low as $12.95 Sale $12.30Per 1/4 Pound
Perennial Wildflower Seeds
Remember: Perennial wildflowers return year after year, blooming in the second season and for many years to come.
Create beautiful flower arrangements from your own meadow or garden with our Bouquets For Days Perennial Flower Seed Collection. Lupines, Shasta Daisies, Blanket Flowers, and Black E...Learn More
Our Perennial Beauty Wildflower Seed Mix will bring long-lasting natural beauty to your landscape. Perennial wildflowers return year after year, perfect for low-maintenance meadows a...Learn MorePerennial Beauty Wildflower Seed Mix Perennial Beauty Wildflower Seed MixAs low as $14.95Per 1/4 Pound
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