It takes more than nectar to entice butterflies to take up residence in your garden. While nectar-rich flowers attract passersby to stop and feed, host plants send an invitation to stay a while. Larval host plants are the secret to successful butterfly gardening; they are plants required by a caterpillar for growth and development.
By planting host plants in your garden, you offer a promise of food for the next generation and will attract more butterflies than you thought possible.
Drawing a Crowd with Host Plants
Female butterflies are lured to host plants by a combination of chemical cues released from the plant. Once they locate a host, they begin laying eggs. Males are also attracted to host plants, where they can surely find females for mating.
All this business of searching out mates and host plants is tiring. The adult butterflies will need energy to keep busy. Providing a balance of nectar-rich flowers to fuel butterflies and host plants to nurture young ensures a garden bustling with activity.
But which plants are best? Different species of butterfly rely on different host plants to rear their young and vary in their preferences for nectar sources, so each species has a unique set of ideal plants. Gardeners can take several approaches to designing a butterfly garden. You might focus on a few desirable butterfly species you wish to attract and select host and nectar plants accordingly.
Another option is to go local. Plants native to your region host butterflies native to your region. Try planting a variety of your favorite native plants and enjoy the surprise of discovering which butterflies show up.
Attracting Specific Butterfly Species with Host Plants
If you’re looking to attract your favorite butterfly species to the garden, start by making a list of larval host plants and nectar favorites specific to the target species. Look around your garden. You might already have many of the nectar plants in your landscape. If so, simply tuck a few host plants in among the flowers and you’ll be ready to go. If not, you’ll want to plant a mixture of nectar-rich flowers and host plants in a sunny location.
Here are plant lists for some of the most popular butterflies to get you started.
There are many of species of swallowtail throughout the country. Two of the most common are the eastern swallowtail (Papilo polyxenes) and tiger swallowtail (Pterourus glaucus), each a vivid mix of yellow, black and blue. Tiger swallowtails use trees as larval host plants, but can be drawn to gardens with nectar resources. Eastern swallowtail caterpillars are often found in the vegetable garden feeding on herbs in the carrot family. Plant extras so you have plenty for cooking and caterpillars, or try planting ornamental bronze fennel.
In decline due to loss of habitat, both in summer and wintering habitats, monarchs (Danaus plexippus) are the poster child of butterfly gardening. Monarch larvae are dependent upon plants in the milkweed family for survival. Gardeners across the country are doing their part to protect monarchs by planting local milkweed species.
Larval Host Plants:
milkweed (Asclepias spp.), (milkweed seeds), such as common milkweed (A. syriaca), swamp milkweed (A. incarnate), and butterfly weed (A. tuberosa)
On intricately-patterned wings, painted ladies (Vanessa cardui) grace the garden with delicate beauty. Ranging across North America, painted ladies were once called thistle butterflies after their preferred wild host plant. In the garden, a variety of plants make suitable hosts. Adults prefer taller nectar plants such as those listed here.
Gulf fritillary (Agraulis vanilla) and its larval host plant passionflower (Passiflora spp.) make for a stunning duo in the garden. Ranging throughout the southern states, the vibrant orange butterfly is a regular in urban gardens and a favorite for outdoor classrooms.
Diversify Your Offerings to Attract More Butterflies
Not all butterflies gather energy from feeding on nectar. Some species find nourishment in rotting fruit, dung, and even carrion. While you’re not likely to put a steaming pile of manure or rotting carcass in the yard, you may try offering a fruit-feeding station. Simply place over-ripe fruits on a flat rock or wooden platform and enjoy the feeding frenzy.
Fruit-feeding butterflies include mourning cloak (Nymphalis antiopa), monarch (Danaus plexippus), red-spotted purple (Basilarchia astyanax) and question mark (Polygonia interragationis).
With a mixture of larval host plants, nectar resources and alternative foods like fruit, you are sure to welcome a diversity of winged life into the garden. Add a shallow dish of water and a sheltered place to escape the wind to complete your butterfly oasis.
With its abundance of nectar-rich blooms, the Butterfly & Hummingbird Wildflower Seed Mix can be planted to attract beautiful pollinators in any region of the country. Containing 16 annual and perennial wildflowers including Wild Cosmos, Rocket Larkspur, Echinacea and Catchfly, this diverse blend delivers stunning color throughout the season. A great choice for a variety of soil types, this mix contains only 100% pure, non-GMO and neonicotinoid-free seeds. Guaranteed to grow.
The Monarch Butterfly Wildflower Mix is an easy-to-grow compilation of 27 wildflowers that will thrive in any sunny location throughout the US. Including 4 different types of Milkweed to ensure Monarchs have plenty of host plants to lay their eggs on, this mix also contains a variety of nectar-rich wildflowers for energizing monarch populations before they migrate. A blend of annuals and perennials provide early and lasting color. This is your go-to mixture for creating an official Monarch Waystation or simply helping out the local pollinators in your area.
This mixture attracts beneficial bugs to the garden. Beneficial bugs include lacewings, lady bugs, hover flies and parasitic wasps, which help to destroy harmful pests such as aphids, thrips and mites.
The Honey Bee Wildflower Mix features 19 nectar-rich wildflowers and clovers adored by bees. Easy to grow across much of the country (zones 1 - 8), this pollinator-friendly mix includes 12 annual varieties like Lacy Phacelia and Yellow Prairie Coneflower for quick, first-season blooms, and 7 perennial wildflowers like Mexican Hat and Echinacea for years of lasting color in the seasons to follow. Contains 100% Pure, non-GMO and Neonicotinoid-free seeds that are guaranteed to grow.